CULTURAL HERITAGE AS A DRIVER FOR MEETING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

ABSTRACT OF THE SYMPOSIUM AIM AND SCOPE.

The Sustainable Development Goals came into effect in January 2016. Up to now, the focus of sustainable development has been on the environment, especially environmental degradation. However, culture heritage could play a major role in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. This symposium will address the challenges highlighted by UNESCO (2015):

1) To identify the measures needed to promote the safeguarding of the cultural heritage in the global development agenda; and 2) To identify the concrete actions that need to be taken in order to integrate cultural heritage conservation and promotion into the sustainable development debate.

This symposium will bring together an international panel of experts with local stake-holders in Cancun, Mexico, to develop a list of recommendations and craft a new model for using cultural heritage to drive sustainable development. A special facet of this model is that it will be informed by public forum discussions that test the robustness of the emerging model, increase its intellectual richness, and enhance the likelihood that the model will have practical applicability. In addition, the symposium will produce a professional publication on this topic. Given global, expert participation in the symposium, we anticipate that the model will have global applicability.

The symposium will be held at the Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun, Mexico. Operations, technical and logistics Committee Dr. Kennedy Obombo and Elisa Guillen are staff members, and they are in charge of liaison with the Institute in terms of the use of space and general logistics. The city of Cancun was chosen because it is located in a region of great need and great potential. For the last few years, two of our symposium organisers (Lilia Lizama and Israel Herrera) have been working on developing a bottom-up constituency that recognizes the importance of cultural heritage for sustainable development within Central America. This symposium will be an opportunity to make a step-change in this agenda by making it possible for international specialists to engage directly with local stakeholders, in a two-way learning process.

SPONSORING INSTITUTIONS

The Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun will act as the hosting university and co-sponsoring institution. It has committed to providing the space, logistical support, office support and related needs for this international symposium. The institute will work closely with Manejo Cultural AC, a non-profit organization represented by Lilia Lizama, which will provide administrative support, and use existing networks to invite students and researchers in the region to participate in the symposium. We have asked for the minimal costs needed to ensure the participation of key participants. We are supporting a significant number of participants from low-income countries. This includes three people from Africa, which will support the Africa Union Agenda 2063, particularly Aspiration 5, to use cultural heritage as a driver of sustainable development of African communities. Some of the participants will contribute part of their travel costs themselves. The venue is provided as in-kind support and administrative support is provided in-kind by all three organisers. Spanish language translations for public lectures and forums will be undertaken by co-organisers, Lilia Lizama Aranda and Israel Herrera. We are seeking sponsorship from companies and businesses that would benefit from the outcomes of the symposium.

SYMPOSIUM DESCRIPTION  

Rationale for the symposium. What are your aims and objectives in holding the event? The meeting’s potential contribution to anthropology.

BACKGROUND, AIMS AND JUSTIFICATION

The Sustainable Development Goals came into effect in January 2016. Prior to this, sustainable development was viewed through an environmental lens, usually in terms of environmental degradation. In 2013, UNESCO convened the Culture: Key to Sustainable Development international conference in Hangzhou, China. Since then, momentum has built. UNESCO (2015) outlines the challenge in Introducing Cultural Heritage into the Sustainable Development Agenda:

The cultural heritage has been absent from the sustainable development debate despite its crucial importance to societies and the wide acknowledgment of its importance at national level. Globalization, urbanization and climate change can threaten the cultural heritage and weaken cultural diversity. What measures are needed to promote the safeguarding of the cultural heritage in the global development agenda? What are the concrete actions that need to be taken in order to integrate cultural heritage conservation and promotion into the sustainable development debate? (UNESCO 2015).

Our symposium will directly address these challenges. Presentations by each scholar will address core questions relating to the challenges and enabling factors that influence the capacity of cultural heritage to act as a driver of sustainable development, and for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In doing so, we plan to develop a model that each of the participants could trial and refine in their work, with the potential that the refined model is globally applicable.

OUR SPECIFIC AIMS ARE:

  1. To develop a new culturally-informed model for using cultural heritage to facilitate the Sustainable Development Goals. 2. To develop protocols to protect Indigenous cultural heritage and intellectual rights, as a basis for developing culturally-informed, viable and sustainable economic opportunities for Indigenous groups.

THE POWER OF HERITAGE

Heritage is powerful. The material objects and traces created by past and present people, and the social memory that is woven around them, anchors individual people and their memories to broader, societal understandings of the past. In an increasingly fragmented world, heritage can strengthen a sense of community by fortifying its relationship to place. It can boost a regional economy through sustainable tourism. Moreover, as Holtorf (2018) points out, cultural heritage needs to be conserved as an important resource for fostering cultural resilience, reducing disaster risk, and supporting peace and reconciliation in the future.

SYMPOSIUM LOCATION – WHY MEXICO?

We are holding the symposium in Mexico because this is an area of great need and great potential. For the last few years, two of our symposium organisers (Lilia Lizama and Israel Herrera) have been working on developing a bottom-up constituency that recognizes the importance of cultural heritage for sustainable development within Central America. In this region, the risks to local heritage sites are numerous. Urban and rural heritage is threatened by both short-term and long-term development. Specific problems in specific areas have been exposed, sometimes repeatedly (Avila, 2000; Buse and Hawkes 2015; Cottom, 2008; Criado, 1993; De Vicente, 2006; Florescano, 1993; Jiménez, 1999; Gándara, 1992; García, 2010; Hák et al 2016; López y Dore, 2008; López, 2010; Ligorred, 2013; Martínez, 2007; López, 2004; Lizama y Herrera, 2005; Martínez y Vergara, 2012; Nivón y Ramírez, 1999; Villaseñor, 2011; Waage et al 2015). However, in order to address these problems, an over-arching approach needs to be taken.

Our aim in this symposium is to develop a model that can be used by archaeologists in this region, and elsewhere, to initiate dialogue with developers, mining companies, and local authorities. While the number of archaeologists in Central America has increased over the last decade or so, there is little work for them. At the same time that trained archaeologists are unemployed (or under-employed) important cultural heritage is lost due to a lack of political will, appropriate legislation (particularly at state and municipal levels), and formal guidelines, standards and protocols. We hope to change this situation by teasing out the role that cultural heritage can play in sustainable development. In the process, we will draft standards for survey and excavation prior to development, establish protocols for working with Indigenous groups and local communities, and develop an overarching model for using cultural heritage to meet the Sustainable Development Goals.

PARTICIPANTS

Our symposium will highlight the importance of multi-sector and multi-actor partnerships in achieving SDGs. To make any real progress we need participation at local, national and international levels, and across a wide range of sectors. Participants come from state government, municipal planning, professional associations, law firms, small businesses, the academy and non-profit organizations. In addition to the Americas, participants come from China, Japan, Ghana, Kenya, Sweden, Britain and Australia. All participants are committed and ready to begin preparing papers.

POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY

Our symposium brings together an international team of experts to explore anthropological theory and method regarding the role of cultural heritage in sustainable development, and to identify actions which will maximize the impact of cultural heritage towards meeting the SDGs. This symposium will bring together a diverse yet balanced group of experts in anthropology, social justice, law, urban planning, heritage management, education, and scientific archaeology. Too often, these fields work separately towards the same goal. Bringing them together will create multiple dimensions for the field of anthropology in an area of great inherent complexity. Pre-circulated papers will create a basis for focused discussion and recommended actions in the symposium itself as well as subsequent publications. Three work groups will a) address the utility of heritage in meeting each of the SDGs, from an analysis of challenges and successful strategies b) draft standards and protocols, and c) develop a global model that is sufficiently flexible to meet local needs. There will be a series of public lectures and social media presentations by distinguished speakers on topics that engage a broad audience. The symposium’s final product will be a professional publication with an over-arching model, specific recommendations and proposed methods for their accomplishment. The papers will be published a special issue of a scholarly journal or as an edited book.

SYMPOSIUM DESCRIPTION QUESTION 2: What are the specific topics to be discussed?

THE DISCUSSION TOPICS. The pre-circulated papers will focus on each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. These are:

GOAL 1: No Poverty

GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

GOAL 4: Quality Education

GOAL 5: Gender Equality

GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

GOAL 13: Climate Action

GOAL 14: Life Below Water

GOAL 15: Life on Land

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

 

USING THE PRE-CIRCULATED PAPERS TO IDENTIFY THEMES AND COMMONALITIES

At the beginning of the symposium each participant will speak to a pre-circulated paper that addresses their own work, in terms of the following questions: 1. Has your work contributed to meeting any of the SDGs? Please consider each goal. 2. Why would you now do differently to shape your previous work so that it contributes to furthering the role of cultural heritage in meeting the SDGs? 3. What do you see as the challenges for cultural heritage as a driver of the SDGs? 4. What do you see as the opportunities for cultural heritage as a driver of the SDGs? 5. What else?

The papers will be used to identify the impact of participants’ previous work in terms of the SDGs. This will allow us to organise participants into focussed workgroups based on the experience with, and interest in, using cultural heritage to drive the SDGs. Each group will analyse their SDGs in order to produce a list of opportunities, challenges, and recommendations to present to the wider group.

THEORY OF CHANGE

The symposium will interrogate a theory of change that is specific to cultural heritage and sustainable development. The draft has been developed by the symposiums organisers for this purpose. It is built upon the following pillars: 1. Developing a functioning and enabling heritage market, in which Indigenous communities can provide quality products and services at an affordable price. 2. Cultural identity, in which the development of a culturally defined community is rooted in the specific values and institutions of this culture. 3. Self-reliance, in which the community relies primarily on its own strength and resources. 4. Social justice, that priority should be given to those most in need. 5. The integration of gender and social inclusion analysis, using a combination of mainstreaming and targeted equity.

WORKGROUPS

During the symposium, we will divide into two workgroups. Each workgroup will discuss the opportunities and challenges for cultural heritage to facilitate the SDGs, based on the pre-circulated papers, and bring the issues back to the main group for further discussion. This analysis will be undertaken in terms of the three recognized categories of heritage: • Tangible cultural heritage: both immovable (monuments, buildings, archaeological sites) and movable (paintings, coins, artefacts); underwater cultural heritage (shipwrecks). • Intangible cultural heritage (oral traditions, performing arts, rituals). • Natural heritage (natural sites, physical, biological or geological formations.

Workgroup 1: Opportunities and challenges for cultural heritage to facilitate the SDGs

GOAL 1: No Poverty

GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

GOAL 4: Quality Education

GOAL 5: Gender Equality

GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

 

Workgroup 2: Opportunities and challenges for cultural heritage to facilitate the SDGs

GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

GOAL 13: Climate Action

GOAL 14: Life Below Water

GOAL 15: Life on Land

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

 

Each workgroup will bring a list of topics to the whole group for broader discussions and the selection of issues for presenting to an open public forum, which will be held on the second afternoon of the symposium. These public interrogations will test the robustness of our model and new, likely unexpected perspectives to the work. Taken together, discussions in the workgroups and public forums will inform the development of our model and refine our theory of change.

THE MODEL

Based on the analysis and recommendations of each workgroup, the full group will consider the critical questions posed by UNESCO: What measures are needed to promote the safeguarding of the cultural heritage in the global development agenda? What are the concrete actions that need to be taken in order to integrate cultural heritage conservation and promotion into the sustainable development debate? (UNESCO 2015)

The nuanced discussion of these issues will inform the development of a model for using heritage to drive the Sustainable Development Goals. The nuanced discussion of these issues will be used to develop a model for using heritage to drive the Sustainable Development Goals. Our aim is to produce a model that has the potential for immediate applicability. Accordingly, local and national policy makers and business people have been invited to the symposium to they can help build the model, and also interrogate the specifics of the model (and hence its practical value) as it is developed. We aim to develop a model can be assessed practically in terms of the Cancun area, where the symposium will be held, as well as inform future work undertaken by scholars who participate in the symposium and, through our publications, in other parts of the world.

SYMPOSIUM DESCRIPTION QUESTION 3: How will the event be structured? Describe the symposium length and general format.

The title of our symposium was inspired by Aspiration 5 of the Africa Union Agenda 2063, to use cultural heritage as a driver of sustainable development of African communities.

The duration and structure of the symposium is designed to achieve the aims outlined in Question 1. In particular, we will address the challenge highlighted by (UNESCO 2015):

1) To identify the measures that are needed to promote the safeguarding of the cultural heritage in the global development agenda; and 2) To identify the concrete actions that need to be taken in order to integrate cultural heritage conservation and promotion into the sustainable development debate.

The symposium will be held over three working days, with an additional day prior to the symposium for participants to visit sites and become familiar with local conditions. Our international team of experts and early career researchers will explore the capacity of cultural heritage to facilitate each of the 17 SDGs, and identify areas for further consideration and action in order to further the SDGs and ensure that cultural heritage is protected as part of the process of meeting these goals, rather than sacrificed as an irrelevant bystander. All participants are committed and ready to begin preparing papers. Below are the steps outlining the symposium structure.

  1. Papers will be prepared by participants and circulated by the organizers prior to the symposium, forming the basis for focused discussion and recommended actions in the symposium itself as well as the subsequent research report and other documents.
  2. Participants will be taken to local sites on the day prior to the symposium, so that they have some familiarity with the challenges and opportunities that are faced by local people in regards to heritage protection and seeking to meet the Sustainable Development Goals.
  3. The symposium will convene with a welcome, opening remarks, and a public lecture: “Can Heritage Help to Facilitate the Sustainable Development Goals?” This lecture will provide background information and present to the public the change that we plan to address during the symposium. It will be presented the night before the symposium convenes.
  4. Two working groups will examine the capacity of heritage to facilitate a particular set of the SDGs, through identifying the opportunities and challenges outlined in the pre-circulated papers. Each working group will be chaired by a symposium organizer, who will facilitate discussions and document results.
  5. Working groups will prepare a draft report, and present their findings to the entire group.
  6. A public forum will be held on the evening of the second day, in which selected participants will present the work-in-progress to the public. This will be a practical test of the robustness of the model and theory of change that are being developed and bring new knowledge to the discussions. Translations will be undertaken by the two Spanish-speaking co-organisers.
  7. Working Groups will revise the draft report in response to the public forum. 8. A public lecture will be presented on the evening of the third day.
  8. The symposium will produce a new model for using cultural heritage to drive sustainable development will be crafted by our international panel of experts, including local stake-holders in heritage and development. A special facet of this model is that its development will be informed by public forum discussions that will test the robustness of the emerging model and increase its intellectual richness, and the likelihood that the model will have practical applicability.
  9. The symposium’s final products will include a list of recommendations for using cultural heritage to drive sustainable development. These will be presented in social media outlets, as a poster and in a professional publication that outlines the work being done by each of the symposium participants in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals. This publication will include recommendations for using cultural heritage to facilitate the Sustainable Development Goals, based on symposium results. The papers developed for the symposium will be revised and published in a professional publication in a high-ranking journal such as World Archaeology (which publishes themed issues) or Current Anthropology, or possibly in the Indigenous Peoples and Archaeology series published by Routledge (Claire Smith is Head Series Editor). This publication will include individual chapters and the symposium results will be featured in the opening chapter and synthesized in the closing chapter.

SYMPOSIUM PARTICIPANTS:

List the individuals who will be funded by the Wenner-Gren grant. There are more than 10 participants aside from this list, to provide a representative sample of the breadth of the symposium participants’ disciplines, geographical locations, and academic standing.

1 Eva MARTÍNEZ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Honduras Cultural Heritage Protection, Public Lecturer & Participant

2 Caleb FOLORUNSO University of Ibadan, Nigeria Archaeology & Cultural Heritage, Public Lecturer & Participant

3 Katsuyuki OKAMURA Osaka City Cultural Properties Association, Osaka, Japan, Urban Development & Cultural Heritage, Symposium Leader & Participant

4 Alok KUNUNGO Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, India, Ethnography & Sustainable Development, Participant

5 Arlene FLEMING World Bank Advisor, USA Cultural Heritage Management, Public Lecturer & Participant

6 Stephen STEAD, Heritage Cultural Heritage Participant STEAD Division, Ltd., U.K. Registration

7 Bruce GREEN Tourism Division, Georgia State, USA, Sustainable Tourism, Participant

8 Daniel SAUCEDO Ritsumeikan University, Japan, Public Archaeology, Participant

9 Edith ONKOBA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Sustainable Development & Indigenous Communities, Participant

10 Jane OSEI Flinders University, Australia (home country Ghana) Rural Development & Environmental Management

 

Planning Committee

DIrection: Claire Smith and Lilia Lizama

  1. Operations Committee: Elisa Guillén (Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun), Kennedy Obombo (Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun)
  2. Technical Committe: Iván Batún (Universidad de Oriente), Israel Herrera (Universidad Autónoma de Campeche), Kennedy Obombo.
  3. Logistics Committee: Laureano González (Goal Shipping), Mariza Carrillo (Universidad de Oriente), Kennedy Obombo

Abril 20-22, 2020.  Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

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